On Mathilde's Fatalism In Necklace莫泊桑短篇小说论
Ⅰ. Introduction 简介
1.1 About Maupassant and his novels1.1关于莫泊桑和他的小说
Maupassant, which is a Frenchman, is a good critical realism writer in 19 century . With Chekhov and O. Henry ,they are called the world's top three great masters of short stories. Maupassant has great influence on later generations, which is known as the "king of the short story". The short novels are the most outstanding Maupassant's literary achievements. He is good at cutting typical significance of segments from ordinary things, and sum up the real life .莫泊桑，是个法国人，是19世纪的一个很好的批判现实主义作家。与契诃夫和欧·亨利，他们被称为短篇小说世界前三大巨匠。莫泊桑过世后，这篇小说是被称为“国王的短篇小说”是有着很大的影响。短篇小说最杰出的莫泊桑的文学成就。他善于从切割普通的东西段的典型意义，并总结了现实生活。
Maupassant was born in 1850 in a decaying noble family in the province of Normandy, which was the northwest of France.In Normandy Maupassant spent his childhood in the countryside.During the period from 1859 to 1860 he followed with the parents to Paris and enrolled in the Napoleon middle school, later her parents divorced and he followed with his mother back to Normandy. In 1870 he went to Paris to study law, at that time the franco-prussian war breaked out, he was called up. After retiring from army, he successively worked in the Marines and the Ministry of Education. His uncle and his mother's friend,which is a famous writer flaubert are his literature teachers. The life and beautiful nature of the hometown gave deepl influence to Maupassant, which became one of the most important source in his literary creation. 莫泊桑出生于1850年在一个腐朽的贵族家庭，在法国的诺曼底省.在诺曼底莫泊桑的西北乡村度过了他的童年.直到1859年至1860年期间，他与跟随父母到巴黎，就读于拿破仑中学，后来她的父母离异，他跟着他的母亲回到诺曼底。在1870年他到巴黎学习法律，当时的普法战争的暴动，使他行动了起来。从军队退役后，他先后曾在海军陆战队和教育部呆过。他叔叔和他母亲的朋友一个着名的作家福楼拜都是他的文学老师。生活和家乡美丽的大自然给莫泊桑他带来了很大影响，这成为他文学创作的最重要来源之一。
Maupassant is a great writer in French literature history, who created the largest number of the short novels .It was never more than three hundred short stories which were written by one person in the 19 th century literature. His short novels depict life very extensively, which actually make up a comprehensive genre painting in the nineteenth century of the French society.The more important is that he put the the art of the short novels to a unprecedented high levels.
The subject of short fictions which were written by Maupassant are very rich and colorful. In his work there are all kinds of social life, such as war debacle, the amusement of high society, the festival in salon party, the routine of the bureaucracy, the daily life of small bourgeois families, the scene of provincial towns, farmers' labor and life, and religious rituals and ceremonies, pub in brothels and so on.And also there are sharp outlines including many classes from the top class of the nobles, the bureaucracy, entrepreneurs to middle class of civil servants, professionals, small business owners, and then to the workers, the peasants, the tramp and beggars and prostitutes.In his extensive