Chapter 1. Theoretical basis of project management
1.1 The economic core of projects
Project is a set of interrelated activities aimed at creating a unique product orservice in terms of time and resource constraints. The project management Institute(PMI) is an international non-profit Institute for project management, developed a setof internationally recognized standards (PMBOK) on managing projects, programs,portfolios of projects determines the project is almost similar to GOST. This is notsurprising, given that GOST was created as a generalized version of the PMBOKstandard.
In September 2012, Russia, United States and the European Union countriesintroduced the ISO 21500 project management standard at the state level through theInternational Standard Organization (ISO). It built on the PMBOK model, but despitethis, the new ISO 21500 standard defines the project in a slightly different way - aunique set of processes consisting of coordinated and managed tasks with start andfinish dates taken to achieve the goal. Achieving a project goal, requires obtainingresults that meet predetermined requirements, including limits on obtaining resultssuch as time, money, and resources. The definition of ISO 21500 significantlyextends the scope of project management techniques, as the concept of the project isinterpreted more widely than in PMBOK or GOST. It should note that due to theprovisions of the Civil Code of Kyrgyz Republic, the international standard used fordiscrepancies in definitions.
1.2 Project management organization
The implementation of the project takes place within the framework of theorganizational form, the structure of which largely affects the project itself. From thispoint of view, for the purposes of the final work, it is necessary to consider variousforms of organizational structures of project management in order to formulate theadvantages/disadvantages of the existing organization in the study at the moment anddetermine the one in which the developed directions of improving projectmanagement will be implemented. The project management system provides aframework for the organization to launch and develop projects. A good systemcombines the desired needs of the chartering organization and the project through thedefinition of interaction between project and organization-founder regarding power,allocation of resources and ultimately the integration of project results in most of thework.
Many organizations have had great difficulty in trying to manage ongoingactivities simultaneously with the establishment of a project management system. One of the main reasons for such difficulties is the contradiction between projects and thebasic structural principles on which traditional organizations based. First, the projectsare unique, single events with a well